METAL CASTING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Diploma Mechanical engineering 6th semester DTE


Subject Title                           : METAL CASTING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Subject Code                         : M-
Hours Per Week                    : 04
Hours Per Semester              : 64


Major Topics
Hours Allotted
Weightage of Marks
Introduction to Metal Casting
Gating and Risering

Melting and Pouring Practice

Cleaning and Inspection of Castings
Casting Defects and Quality control in Foundries
Mechanisation, Computerisation and Pollution Control of Foundries
Application of CAD/CAM in Foundries
Casting Simulation and Optimization
Environmental concerns and Industry innovations
Tests and Revisions



            On the completion of the course the students should be able to understand:

      1.  The importance of metal casting science and engineering
            2.  The concept of casting processes
            3.  The importance of design of gating and risering of castings
            4.  The construction and working of melting furnaces
            5.  The importance of pouring practice
            6.  The importance of cleaning and inspection of castings
            7.  The importance of quality in casting industry
            8.  The importance of mechanisation and computerisation in foundry
            9.  The application of CAD/CAM in foundries
           10. The importance of casting simulation
           11. The importance of pollution control in foundries


1.0  Introduction to Metal Casting

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Casting - As basic manufacturing process, Importance and Applications
1.3 New casting development
1.4 Casting Processes
1.4.1 Hierarchical classification of various casting processes 
1.4.2 Continuous Casting, Squeeze Casting and Semi-solid casting process
1.4.3 Advantages, disadvantage and applications of above mentioned casting

2.0   Gating and Risering
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Elements of Gating system
2.3 Design of Gating system
2.3.1 Objectives achieved from good gating design
2.3.2 Turbulence in gating system
2.3.3 Metal flow rate and velocity calculations
2.3.4 Design criteria for pouring basin and sprue
2.3.5 Pouring time
2.3.6 Design of Runner and Ingate
2.3.7 Practical rules for Gating practice
2.4 Risering of Castings
2.5 Risering practice for alloys
2.6 Solidification of castings
2.6.1 Concept of solidification of pure metals and binary alloys
2.6.2 Solidification rate, Solidification time and Chvorinov’s rule
2.7 Progressive solidification, Directional solidification and control of solidification to

 obtain sound castings

3.0 Melting and Pouring Practice


3.1 Introduction
3.2 Choice or selection of Melting furnace
3.3 Melting furnaces for foundries
3.3.1 Cupola
3.3.2 Crucible
3.3.3 Electric Arc furnace
3.4 Pouring of molten metal and handling tools

4.0 Cleaning and Inspection of Castings

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Methods of cleaning - Fettling, Tumbling, Pickling, Sand and Shot blasting
4.3 Dressing of Castings
4.4 Importance of inspection
4.5 Non-destructive methods of Inspection - Visual inspection, Sound test, Pressure test,              
            Radiographic (X-ray) test, Magnetic particle test, Fluorescent penetrate inspection,
            and Ultrasonic inspection
      4.6 Recent Developments in Inspection and Testing - Thermal Inspection, X-Ray
            Diffraction Analysis, Image Analysis and Computerized Testing    
5.0 Casting Defects and Quality Control in Foundries

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Defects in casting - Causes and Remedies,
5.3 Salvage of Defective Castings
5.3.1 Factors affecting salvage of castings
5.3.2 Salvaging techniques
5.3.3 Repair of Gray Iron, S.G. Iron, Steel, Aluminum alloy and Copper alloy castings
5.4 Quality control in foundries
5.5 Statistical methods in quality control of castings - Sampling inspection and Control
5.6 Statistical process control (SPC) in foundries

6.0 Mechanisation, Computerisation and Pollution Control of Foundries

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Need for Mechanization
6.3 Areas of Mechanization
6.4 Application of Computer and Robots in foundries
6.5 Energy Saving in Foundries
      6.6 Pollution Control in Foundries
    6.6.1 Importance of Pollution Control in foundries
    6.6.2 Pollutants produced in different sections of foundry
    6.6.3 Methods to control pollutants produced in a foundry
    6.6.4 Environment standards and certification

7.0 Application of CAD/CAM in Foundries

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Solid modelling techniques
7.3 Model representation and exchange formats 
7.4 Computer-aided design of patterns and dies 
7.5 Computer-aided manufacture of tooling
7.6 Computer-aided inspection of tooling
8.0 Casting Simulation and Optimization

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Casting solidification simulation
8.3 Mold filling simulation
8.4 Casting defect prediction by simulation
8.5 Casting methods design optimization
8.6 Casting methoding and simulation software packages:
AutoCAST, Magmasoft, ProCAST, Solidcast, etc.
      8.7 Internet Based Foundry Engineering (E-Foundry)


1.         Introduction to Metal Casting

1.1   Appreciate the importance of metal casting in engineering
1.2   State some of major application areas of metal casting in engineering
1.3   List major metals in use today (by weight) along with their main characteristics and        
        typical applications
1.4   Explain the major stages in developing a new casting in a foundry
1.5   Appreciate the special casting processes
1.6   Explain the Hierarchical classification of various casting processes with the help of
        flow diagram
1.7   Explain Continuous casting, Squeeze casting and Semi-solid casting process
1.8   State the advantages, disadvantages and application of above mentioned casting

2.         Gating and Risering

2.1   Explain the principles of Gating
2.2   Explain the Requirements, purpose/functions of the gating system
2.3   Explain with line diagram Pouring Cups and Basins, Sprues and Gates
2.4   Explain the importance of Design of gating system (objectives achieved from good a
        good design)    
2.5   Explain the effect of Turbulence in gating system
2.6   Explain how to calculate Metal flow rate, velocity and Pouring time (simple problems)
2.7   Explain Design criteria for pouring basin
2.8   Explain Design of sprue, runner and ingates
2.9   State the Practical rules for good gating practice
2.10 Explain how slag and dross are eliminated in case ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
        (Iron, Copper, Aluminium and Magnesium alloys)
2.11 Explain the Principles of Risering
2.12 Explain the difference between open and blind riser 
2.13 Explain how the location of Riser affects the Directional Solidification
2.14 Explain how to increase riser efficiency by Promoting Directional Solidification    
2.15 State the aims and general principles of Riser system design
2.16 Explain the importance of riser location and feeding distance for riser system design
2.17 Explain the Concept of solidification of pure metals and binary alloys
2.18 Explain Solidification rate, Solidification time and Chvorinov’s Rule
2.19 Explain how to obtain sound castings by controlling Progressive and Directional  

3.         Melting and Pouring Practice

3.1 Understand the melting furnaces and their operations
3.2 Choice or Selection of furnace for melting different metals and alloys
3.3 Explain the construction and operational details of Cupola, Crucible furnace
      (pit and tilting type) Electric furnace (direct and indirect electric arc furnace)
3.4 State the advantages and disadvantages of above mentioned furnaces
3.5 Explain Cupola charge calculations (simple problems)
3.6 Explain Recent Trends in Cupola melting
3.7 Melt pouring  
3.8 Explain different Pouring Equipments used in foundry
3.9 Explain Pouring Practice (including automatic pouring)

4.         Cleaning and Inspection of Castings

      4.1 Know the different methods of cleaning and inspection of casting.
      4.2 Explain the necessity for cleaning of casting.
      4.3 Explain different methods of cleaning
      4.4 Explain the need for inspection of casting
4.5 Explain the principle and operation of visual inspection, pressure test, radiographic test,
      sound test, magnetic particle test, fluorescent penetrate test and ultrasonic inspection.
     4.6 Explain Recent Developments in Inspection and Testing of castings

5.         Casting Defects and Quality Control in Foundries
      5.1 Identify the different types of casting defects
      5.2 State the causes for casting defects and suggest the remedies
      5.3 Explain the different techniques for repair of ferrous and non-ferrous casting
      5.4 Explain how casting quality can be controlled in different stages of casting process
      5.5 Explain how statistical methods can be used in quality control of castings
      5.6 Explain how process variations can be controlled through the use of SPC

6.         Mechanisation, Computerisation and Pollution Control of Foundries

      6.1 Appreciate the importance of Mechanization of foundries
      6.2 List the areas for Mechanization
      6.3 Explain the need for Mechanization
      6.4 Identify the areas where Computers and Robots can be used in foundry
6.5 Explain the areas where energy conservation programmes can be effectively introduced in
      a foundry.

7.         Application of CAD/CAM in Foundries

      7.1 Explain casting features related to product and tooling
      7.2 Explain different modelling techniques commonly used in foundries
      7.3 State the advantages and limitations of solid modelling systems
      7.4 Explain how CAD/CAM helps in improving foundry operations
8.         Casting Simulation and Optimization

      8.1 Explain how simulation helps in casting quality and yield improvement
      8.2 Explain the different software programs used for casting methoding and simulation
      8.3 Briefly describe and compare the features of various foundry software    
      8.4 Explain the major inputs and outputs of various simulation software
      8.5 Explain the usefulness of internet communication in casting supply chain


  1. Principles of foundry technology - P.L.Jain (Tata McGraw-Hill)                                             
  2. Metal Casting: Computer Aided Design and Analysis – B.Ravi (PHI)
  3. A text book of foundry technology – O.P.Khanna (Dhanpat Rai Publications)
  4. Manufacturing Process- I & II & III- By Dr. Radhakrishna K
  5. Foundry technology – Sinha and Goel
  6. Foundry technology – R.B.Gupta
  7. Principles of Metal casting – Heine and Rosenthal.
  8. Foundry Technology –Dr. Radhakrishna.

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