ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION DIPLOMA ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS

Department of Technical Education

DIPLOMA COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

Fourth Semester

 

Sub: ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION

Sub Code:

Contact Hrs/Week: 04.                                                                                Contact Hrs/Sem: 64

 

Chapter No:                                                    Topic                                               No. of Hours

 

                                                                        UNIT I

         

          1.       Introduction                                                                                                         03     

          2.       Hydro Electric Power Pant                                                                                  09

          3.       Thermal Power Plant                                                                                           06

         4.       Nuclear Power Plant                                                                                            04

                                                          

                                                                       UNIT II

 

5.               Diesel Power Plant                                                                                              02

6.               Gas Power Plant                                                                                                  02                                                                        

7.               Solar Power Plant                                                                                                07

8.               Wind Power plant                                                                                                03 

9.               Tidal Power Plant                                                                                                01                                                          

10.           Biomass Power Plant                                                                                           03

11.           Fuel Cells                                                                                                             02

                     

                                                             UNIT III 

                                                                         

12.           Power Plant Operation.                                                                                       04

13.           Economics of Power Generation.                                                                        07

14.           Power Factor Improvement.                                                                                01

 

Seminars by experts from respective field and

Visit to generating station (any one)                                                                              06                                        

Tests and Revision                                                                                                        04

_________

                                                                             Total                                                 64                                               

                                                                                          

 

 

 

 

 

                

CONTENT

          

1.        Introduction:

         Understand the importance of Electrical Energy, Concepts of Electrical Power Generation,

           Sources  used for Generating Electrical Power.         

2.        Hydro Electric Power Plant: 

Understand the working principle, classification, Site selection, Plant layout, Components, Merits and Demerits.        

3.         Thermal Power Plant:

Understand the working principle, site selection, Plant layout, Components, Merits and Demerits.

4.            Nuclear Power Plant: 

Understand the working principle, Site selection, Plant layout, Components, Merits and Demerits.         . 

5.            Diesel Power Plant:      

Understand the working principle, Site selection, Plant layout, Components, Merits and Demerits.                       

6.            Gas Power Plant:          

Understand the working principle, types, Site selection, Plant layout,  Components, Merits and Demerits.

7.       Solar Power Plant:       

           Understand the importance, working principle, types, Site selection, Plant layout,

          Components, Merits and Demerits.

8.      Wind Mill Power Plant :          

           Understand the importance, working principle, types, Site selection, Components,

            Merits and Demerits.

 9.       Tidal Power Plant:

           Understand the importance, working principle, types, Site selection, Components,

           Merits and Demerits.

10.      Bio-mass Power Plant.

            Understand the importance, working principle, types, Site selection, Components,

            Merits and Demerits.

11.       Fuel Cells:

            Understand the importance, working principle, types, Components, Merits and Demerits.

12.       Power Plant Operation:

      Understand the routine maintenance of Hydel, Thermal and Nuclear Power Plant.

13.       Economics of Power Generation:

      Understand the factors affecting the Cost of Power Generation.

14.       Power factor Improvement:

            To know the importance of Power Factor and Methods of Improving.

 

 

 

 

 

TEXT BOOKS:                                                                                               PUBLISHERS                                                                            

 

1. Principles of power system by V.K.Mehta and Rohit Mehta                           S.CHAND                      

2. Generation of electrical Energy by B.R.Gupta                                                 S.CHAND

3. Electrical Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution. By S.N.Singh. PHI

4. Non-conventional Energy Resources by  S.Hasan saed and D.K.Sharma. KATARIA&SONS

5. Power Plant Engineering by K.K.Ramalingam                                                 SCITECH

6. Power Plant Engineering by A. K. Raja ,  New Age International Publisher

7.Generation Distribution and Utilisation of electric energy by C.L. Wadwa,    

                                                                                                    -New Age International Publisher

8.Elements of power station design-M V Deshpande-PHI Publications.

9.Substation design and equipments-p s Satna-Dhanpatrai.

   

 

 

REFERENCES:                                                                             

 

1. Non-conventional Energy Resources by  S.Hasan saed and D.K.Sharma

2. Power Plant Engineering by K.K.Ramalingam

3. Power system operation and control by B.R.Gupta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:

 

1.       INTRODUCTION

1.1        Explain the importance of electrical power generation.      

1.2        List out the various sources of energy available in nature.             

             1.2.1     Classify the sources into conventional and Non-conventional types.       

             1.2.2     Classify the sources into renewable and non renewable types

             1.2.3     Explain the meaning and importance of green energy.

1.3        Briefly explain the concepts of converting the sources into electrical energy - Hydel,

Nuclear, Thermal, Diesel, Gas, Solar, Wind, Tidal, Geothermal, MHD, Biomass, Hybrid power plant and fuel cells.

              1.3.1     Briefly explain the other sources of electrical energy- Cogeneration, CHP and

                           Distributed generation. (Concepts only)*

1.4       Mention the approximate percentage power contributed by each source in India*(show

             Pie-chart)

1.4.1            Briefly explain the present power scenario in Karnataka and in India -  

              Availability and Demand

2.         HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT

2.1         Classify hydroelectric power plants based on the available head of water, plant

             capacity, load and construction.

2.2         Draw the general layout of low, medium, high and pumped storage hydro power plant.

2.3         List the factors to be considered for selection of site

2.4         List the main components of hydro electric power plant.

              2.4.1      Briefly explain the main components – catchment area, reservoir, forebay,

                           dam, spillway, trash rack, surge tank, penstock, prime mover, alternator, draft

                            tube and tail race.

             2.4.2      Explain the meaning of water hammer and its effect.

2.5         Classify hydraulic turbines based on working principle, water head, flow and their

             application.

             2.5.1      Compare impulse and reaction turbines used in Hydro power plant.

             2.5.2      Explain with diagram the principle, construction and working of pelton wheel

                            – single jet and multi jet types.*

               2.5.3      Explain with diagram the principle, construction and working of Francis

                             turbine.*

             2.5.4      Explain with diagram the principle, construction and working of Kaplan

                           turbine.*  

2.5.5            Explain with diagram, the construction and working of accessories-Nozzle,

              Draft tube types and governor (only block diagram showing valve, prime

              mover, alternator, feedback and controller)*

2.6         List the merits and demerits of Hydro power plant.

2.7         Briefly explain Hydrograph and its use.*

             2.7.1      Estimate the electrical power that can be generated from available head of

                           water and discharge.  Simple problems on above (2.7.1: B.R.Gupta, page 130

                             and 134)

  2.8         List the major Hydro power plants in Karnataka with their plant capacity.

2.9         Explain the importance of Hydro Energy and its scope in India.     

 

3.       THERMAL POWER PLANT

 3.1          Draw the general layout of thermal (steam) power plant.

               3.1.1       Briefly explain the working of thermal power plant.

 3.2          List the factors to be considered for selection of site.

 3.3          List the main components of thermal power plant.

               3.3.1       Briefly explain the main components and their functions:

                        Fuel system: coal storage, coal handling, ash handling, ash storage.

                        Draught system: forced draught and induced draught fan

            Steam generation system: Boiler furnace, Boiler, Super heater, Low pressure   

             heater, High pressure heater, Economizer and Air preheater.

                        Generating system: prime mover and Alternator.

                        Cooling system- condenser and cooling tower.

3.4          Explain with diagram construction and working of water tube boiler.     

  3.5        Classify the prime movers used in thermal power plant.

             3.5.1      Explain with diagram the working of impulse type steam turbine.

             3.5.2      Explain with diagram the working of reaction type steam turbine.                      

3.6        List the merits and demerits.

3.7         Compare thermal power plant with hydro power plant.

3.8         Compare hydro generator and turbo generator used in hydel and thermal plants

              respectively.

                                                                                                                               

4.       NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

4.1        Draw the schematic diagram of Nuclear power plant.

            4.1.1     Briefly explain the working of Nuclear power plant.

4.2        List the factors to be considered for selection of site

4.3        List the main components of Nuclear power plant.

            4.3.1     Briefly explain the main components of  Nuclear power plant: Nuclear reactor,

                         Heat exchanger, Prime mover, Alternator and cooling system.

4.4         Explain with diagram the working of nuclear reactor(PHWR type).

4.41      Briefly explain the components of nuclear reactor: Fuel rods, Moderator,

                      Control rods, Coolant,  Reflector and Shielding.

   4.5       Briefly explain disposal of nuclear waste in nuclear power plant  

 4.7       List of merits and demerits of Nuclear power plant

 4.8        Compare thermal power plant with nuclear power plant.

 

5.       DIESEL POWER PLANT

5.1        Draw the schematic diagram of a Diesel generator unit.*

5.2        Draw the general layout of a Diesel power plant *

5.3        List the main components of Diesel power plant.                                                               

             5.3.1      Briefly explain the main components - Diesel engine, starting system,

                         Air intake system, Exhaust system, Cooling system, Lubrication system, Fuel

                         system, Alternator and governor.

5.4         List the merits and demerits of Diesel power plant

5.5         List the applications of Diesel power plant.

 

6.       GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT

6.1         Draw the schematic diagram of a Gas turbine power plant.

6.2         List the main components of Gas turbine power plant.

             6.2.1     Briefly explain the main components: Compressor, Regenerator, Combustion

                          chamber,   Gas turbine, Alternator and starting motor.

6.3         List the merits and demerits.                                                                                  

6.4        List the advantages of Gas turbine plant over Steam power plant.

6.5         Draw the schematic diagram of combined cycle gas power plant.

6.6         Mention the main features of combined cycle gas power plant.*

                                                         

7.       SOLAR POWER PLANT

7.1         Explain the importance of Solar Energy and its scope in India.*

7.2         List the factors to be considered for selection of site of solar plant

7.3         Briefly explain the types of solar power plant: Photovoltaic type and solar thermal type.

   7.3.1     Briefly explain solar modules and solar arrays with reference to Photovoltaic

                power plant.*

              7.3.2     List the types of Photovoltaic power plant.*

              7.3.3     Explain stand alone type Photovoltaic power plant with block diagram.*

              7.3.4     Explain the Photovoltaic Hybrid power plant with block diagram.*

              7.3.5     List the merits and demerits of solar Photovoltaic power plants.

              7.3.6     List the applications of  Photovoltaic power plant.

7.4        List the types of solar thermal power plant- Distributed collector type and central

              receiver type.

   7.4.1     Draw the schematic diagram of Distributed collector type solar thermal power

                plant.*

              7.4.2     Briefly explain Distributed collector type solar thermal power plant.

              7.4.3     Draw the schematic diagram of central receiver type solar thermal power

                           plant.*

              7.4.4     Briefly explain central receiver type solar thermal power plant.

              7.4.5     Briefly explain flat plate type and concentrating parabolic trough type solar

                           collectors with diagram.*

7.5        Compare solar photovoltaic and solar thermal power plants.                           

7.6         List the merits and demerits of solar thermal power plants.                                               

             

8.       WIND POWER PLANT

8.1         Explain the importance of Wind Energy.

8.2         List the factors to be considered for site selection

8.3         List the classification of wind power plant based on plant capacity.

             8.3.1      List the classification of wind turbine generator.

             8.3.2      Distinguish between horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbine generator.

             8.3.3      Briefly explain horizontal axis wind turbine generator with diagram.

             8.3.3      List the components of wind turbine generator and mention their functions.     

8.4         Briefly explain the terms: pitch angle, pitch control and yaw control.*       

8.5         List the merits and demerits.

8.6         List the applications of wind energy.

 

Refer: Non-conventional Energy Resources by S.Hasan saed and D.K.Sharma

 

9. TIDAL POWER PLANT

9.1        Classify the types of Tidal power plant.

             9.1.1     Briefly explain with diagram single basin and double basin types*.

9.2        List the main components of Tidal power plant.

             9.2.1     Briefly explain the main components: Dam, Sluice ways, turbine and alternator.

9.3        List the factors to be considered for site selection.

9.4        List the merits and demerits.

 

  10. BIOMASS POWER PLANT

10.1       Explain the importance of biomass energy and its scope.

10.2       List the factors to be considered for site selection.

10.3       Draw the line diagram of biomass power plant.

             10.3.1    List the components of biomass power plant.

             10.3.2    Briefly explain the components of biomass power plant.

10.4       List the types of biogas plants.

             10.4.1    Briefly explain batch type, continuous type, movable drum type and fixed

                           dome types.

             10.4.2    Explain with diagram movable drum type biogas plant.

             10.4.3    Explain with diagram fixed dome type biogas plant.

             10.4.4    Compare movable and fixed dome types.

10.5       List the merits and demerits biomass power plant.

                                                                                                                                             

11. FUEL CELLS

11.1       Define fuel cell.

             11.1.1    Explain with diagram the working principle and operation of fuel cells.

11.2       List the types of fuel cells.

11.3       List the merits and demerits of  fuel cells.

11.4       List the applications of fuel cells.

 

12.    POWER PLANT OPERATION.

            12.1     Explain the daily routine maintenance of power plants. (general equipments )

            12.2     Meaning of voltage regulation and voltage regulator.

                        12.2.1 Explain with block diagram automatic voltage regulator.*(Electronic type)

            12.3     Meaning of excitation.

                        12.3.1 Explain with block diagram static excitation system.*

13.    ECONOMICS OF POWER GENERATION.

                  Define important terms and factors related to power plant: Connected load, Maximum

                     demand, average load, demand factor ( peak load factor), diversity factor, load factor,

               Plant capacity factor,  plant utilization factor.

  13.1      Explain daily load curve and its importance    

               13.1.1    Explain the importance of high load factor.

   13.1.2    Simple problems on the above.(ref : V.K.Mehta examples-3.1,3.2 and 3.3,      

                 page 50)

  13.2      List the types of loads.*

  13.3      List the factors on which the cost of energy depends.

             13.3.1    Briefly explain fixed cost, semi fixed cost and operating (running) cost.

             13.3.2    Briefly explain interest and depreciation as related to power plants.

             13.3.3    Calculate the energy generated per annum.*

             13.3.4    Simple problems on cost of energy.( ref : V.K.Mehta examples-4.4, 4.5, 4.6,

                           4.7, page76)

13.4       Explain the meaning of tariff.*

             13.4.1    State the objectives of tariff.

             13.4.2     List the types of tariff.

             13.4.3     Briefly explain the types of tariff.

 

14.    POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT.

            14.1  Explain the meaning of power factor and its significance.

            14.2   State the causes of low power factor.

            14.3   Explain the effects of low power factor on power plant.

            14.4   List the methods of power factor improvement.

            14.5 List the advantages of power factor improvement.                          

    

 

* See reference below

 

1.3.1 : SN.Singh, page 20,21

1.4:    BR.Gupta ,page 4 and any other reliable source of information.

2.5.2 , 5.3 and 5.4 K.K.Ramalingam, page 37.                 2.5.5 : S.N.Singh, page 79

2.7:     S.N.Singh, page 89                                                2.7.1:  BR.Guptha , page 130 and 134

5.1:     SN. Singh, page 114                                              5.2:     BR. Gupta, page 97

  6.6:     S.N.Singh, page 133                                              7.1:     BR.Gupta, page 362

  7.3:     S.Hasan saed and D.K.Sharma, page 62                7.3.1:  BR.Gupta, page 355

  7.3.2:  BR.Gupta, page 355                           

  7.3.3:   S.Hasan saed and D.K.Sharma, page 125

  7.5:     S.Hasan saed and D.K.Sharma ,page 96                7.6:     BR.Gupta, page 348

  7.7:      S.Hasan saed and D.K.Sharma, page79 to 83.

  8.4      S.Hasan saed and D.K.Sharma ,page 202.

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