Department of Technical Education
DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING/ CIVIL D’SHIP
FOURTH SEMESTER CIVIL ENGINEERING
Contact Hrs/Week: 4 Hrs. Contact Hrs/Sem:64 Hrs.
NO OF HOURS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE IN EXAM
Fundamentals of Hydraulics
Total Pressure and centre of pressure
Flow of fluids
Flow through orifices and mouthpieces
Flow over notches
Flow over weirs
Flow through channels
Flow through Pipes
Pumps and turbines
Seminars, field/technical visit, inventions/innovations, demonstrations, workshops etc
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Tests and revision
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FOURTH SEMESTER CIVIL ENGINEERING
DETAILS OF CONTENTS
- FUNDAMENTALS OF HYDRAULICS
Fluid, classification and properties of fluids
Pressure and its measurements: Definition of Hydrostatic pressure, atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure, absolute pressure, vaccum pressure, intensity of pressure and pressure head
Measurement of pressure: Manometer, U-tube , differential manometer, simple problems
- TOTAL PRESSURE AND CENTRE OF PRESSURE
Total pressure and centre of pressure on vertical planes like, triangular , rectangular and circular plane surfaces (simple problems)
Practical applications of centre of pressure, sluice gates (only theory)
- FLOW OF FLUIDS
Types of flow, stream line , turbulent, steady and unsteady, uniform and non uniform
Discharge and continuity equation- simple problems
Energies in fluid motion- potential, kinetic and pressure head
Bernoulli’s theorem( without proof) –simple problems
Horizontal venturimeter, theory and simple problems
- FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES AND MOUTHPIECES
Definition and types of orifices, vena contracta, hydraulic co-efficients and their relationship (only theory)
Flow through rectangular and circular orifice (simple problems without derivation)
Flow through submerged and partially submerged orifices
Mouth pieces- different types and their uses, convergent, divergent and Borda’s mouth piece.
- FLOW OVER NOTCHES
Definition of notch, and its types, discharge calculation for rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal notch (simple problems without derivation)
- FLOW OVER WEIRS
Definition of weir, discharge over rectangular and cippolitte weir (simple problems without derivation)
Types of weirs and their uses (only theory)
- FLOW THROUGH CHANNELS
Definition and classification of channels
Discharge through channels using Chezy’s and Manning’s formula( no derivation – simple problems only)
Most economical sections for rectangular and trapezoidal channels
- FLOW THROUGH PIPES
Loss of fluid friction
Types of losses, major and minor losses
Darcy’s formula for head loss due to friction( simple problems, on major and minor losses)
Hydraulic gradient and total energy line
Flow through single pipe
Flow from one reservoir to another reservoir through single pipe
Water hammer, surge tanks (only theory)
- PUMPS AND TURBINES
Working principle of reciprocating, centrifugal and deep well pumps
Maintenance of pumps
Turbine, types and its working principle of Pelton and Francis turbine
GENERAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES:
Upon completion of the study of the subject the student should be able to
- Comprehend the fluid pressure and its measurement
- Know the importance of total pressure and centre of pressure
- Comprehend the general principles of the flow of a fluid and energies of fluid
- Understand the principles of flow through orifices and mouth pieces
- Determine the discharge for different types of notches.
- Determine the discharge for different types of weirs
- Understand the terms and principles of flow through channels of most economical sections
- Understand the terms and principles of flow through pipes.
- Understand the working principles of pumps and turbines
SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:
1.0 Comprehend the fluid pressure and its measurement.
1.1 Know the definition of fluid, its classification and important properties and their SI
units (simple problems)
1.2 Understand the definition of Hydrostatic pressure, atmospheric pressure,
gauge pressure, absolute pressure, vaccum pressure, intensity of pressure and
1.3 Measurement of pressure using simple manometer and differential manometer, simple
problems on them
2.0 Know the importance of total pressure and centre of pressure
2.1 Understand the concept of total pressure and centre of pressure on vertical planes
like, triangular , rectangular and circular plane surfaces
2.2 Simple problems on the above
2.3 Know the practical applications of center of pressure (sluice gates)
3.0 Comprehend the general principles of the flow of a fluid and energies of fluid
3.1 Definition of various types of fluid flow. stream line , turbulent, steady and unsteady,
uniform and non uniform
3.2 Establish the equation of continuity of flow.(simple problems)
3.3 Know the type of energies of fluid in motion.( potential, kinetic and pressure head)
3.4 State Bernoulli's theorem for total energy and its equation(simple problems)
3.6 Application of Bernoulli's equation for horizontal venturimeter(Theory equation and
4.0 Understand the principles of flow through orifices and mouth pieces.
4.1 Know the definition of orifice and Classify the different types of orifices
4.2 Define the terms Vena contracta , hydraulic coefficients and their relationships
4.3 Understand the flow through rectangular and circular orifice and simple problems
4.4 Understand the concept flow through submerged and partially submerged orifice.
4.5 List the various types of mouthpieces., differentiate between internal and external
5.0 Determine the discharge for different types of notches.
5.1 Definition and types of notches
5.2 Know the Formula for discharge over rectangular notch, trapezoidal notch
and triangular notches.(simple problems)
6.0 Determine the discharge for different types of weirs
6.1 Definition and type of weirs
6.2 State the formula for discharge over a rectangular weir and cippolette weir(simple
6.3 Francis formula for the discharge over a rectangular weir(simple problems)
7.0 Understand the terms and principles of flow through channels of most economical sections
7.1 Define the terms: wetted perimeter and hydraulic mean depth.
7.2 Knowledge of Chezy's formula for discharge through open channel.
7.3 Calculate the discharge through a rectangular and trapezoidal channel
using Chezy's formula.
7.4 State Manning's formulae for discharge through open channel.
7.5 Calculate the discharge through rectangular and trapezoidal channels using
7.6 Explain the most economical cross section of a channel.
7.7 State the conditions for most economical section of a rectangular and
7.8 Calculate the discharge for most economical section of rectangular and
trapezoidal channels from the given parameter.
7.9 Calculate the max. velocity and max. discharge in a channel of circular section
7.10 Explain the terms - specific energy, critical depth, critical velocity for
7.11 Explain the hydraulic jump and its applications.
8.0 Understand the terms and principles of flow through pipes.
8.1 State the law's of fluid friction for uniform flow.
8.2 To know the types of losses of flow in a pipe –major and minor losses
8.3 Know and apply Darcy’s formula for head loss due to friction in a pipe flow
from given parameters.
8.4 Define and Sketch the hydraulic gradient and total energy lines.
8.5 Calculate the discharge from one reservoir to another reservoir through
a single pipeline.
8.6 Explain the effect of water hammer.
8.7 Outline the use of surge tank
9.0 Understand the working principles of pumps and turbines
9.1 Explain the working principles of a reciprocating pump, centrifugal pump
and deep well pump-theory and sketch
9.2 Explain the maintenance of pumps
9.3 Define turbine , classification of turbines, differentiate between impulse and
reaction turbine and its working principle
Text Book :1. Hydraulics By H S Vishwanath, Sapna Publications.
1. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Dr. P.N.Modi and Dr S.M.Seth
(Standard Book House, Delhi - 6)
2. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines R S Khurmi
( S Chand and Company, Ramnagar New Delhi - 110 055 )
3. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Dr. Jagadish Lal
4. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Abdulla Sheriff
5. Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machinery V. Thanikachelam T.T.T.I Madras - 600 113
6. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines Bansal A R ( Laxmi publication,
New Delhi- 110 002)
7. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines - S.Ramamrutham