TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION Fourth Semester DIPLOMA ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

Department of Technical Education

DIPLOMA COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

Fourth Semester

 

 Sub: TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

Sub Code:

Contact Hrs/Week: 04                                                                                 Contact Hrs/Sem: 64

 

Chapter No:                                                Topic                                                   No. of hours

                          

                                                                   UNIT -1

 

1                 Transmission                                                                                                              8

2          Line Constants and Performance                                                                              7

3          Under ground cables                                                                                                 3

 

 

                                                                    UNIT-2

 

4         Erection Materials and Maintenance of Transmission lines                                         4

5         HVDC and FACTS                                                                                                     5

6         Receiving Station                                                                                                         5

7         Sub Station                                                                                                                  4

 

 

                                                                   UNIT-3

8         Distribution                                                                                                                  5                                                

9         Protection against over voltages                                                                                  6

10       Computer Control of Power System-SCADA                                                            2

11       Distribution Automation                                                                                              5

12       Seminars (by Experts)/ Visits

          to Receiving Station HVDCStation/nearbyHydro/thermal/nuclear/diesel/wind        6

 

                                           Tests                                                                                           4

                                                                                                                                          _____                                                                                                                      

                                           Total                                                                                         64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENT

 

1. Transmission.

           Line Fundamentals.

Standard  voltage of transmission.

Systems of Transmission.Comparison of AC and DC Transmission

2.  Line Constants and Performance.

           Line parameters.

           Effect of line inductance, capacitance  on regulation.

           Calculation of regulation for short transmission line, problems.

           Corona,  Transposition of conductors.

3.  Under ground cables.

          Types and different kV ratings.

          Methods of laying cables.

  4.  Erection and maintenance. of Transmission & Distribution lines

          Erection, Maintenance of Transmission lines,

Study of Conductors and Insulating Materials used for line supports,U.G Cables, Transmission and Distribution lines

5.  HVDC transmission and FACTS:

         Introduction,

         Advantages and disadvantages of HVDC Transmission,

         Types of HVDC  links, Main Components of HVDC transmission,

         Flexible AC transmission System  Technology(FACTS),

         Objectives Basic types of FACTS Controller,

         FACTS devices     Static Var. Compensators

 

         Refer: Electrical Power Generation Transmission and Distribution by S.N.Singh

6.  Receiving stations.

          Types and layout diagrams.

          Auxiliaries in receiving stations.

          Normal routine in Receiving stations.

          Grid connection - load dispatching.

7.   Sub stations

           Types and layout diagrams.

           Auxiliaries in substations.

           Normal routine in a substation.

           Busbar arrangements.

 

 

 

8.  Distribution.

          Classification of distribution system.

          AC and DC distribution.

          Connection schemes of distribution system.

          DC distribution system.

          Types of DC distribution system.

 

9.  Protection against over voltages

        Voltage surge – Causes of over voltages

        Lightning

        Types of lightning strokes

        Protection against lightning

        Lightning Arresters

        Types of Lightning Arresters

        Surge Absorbers

        Isolated and Earth Neutral

        Peterson Coil-principle and application

10   Computer Control of Power System –SCADA Supervisory Control

        Functions of SCADA,

        Need for SCADA

 .       Components of SCADA.

         Configurations, Layout of SCADA.

         Refer: Power System Operation and Control by – B.R Gupta

 

11      Distribution Automation

 

        Load Forecasting,

        Problems with existing Distribution System,

        Need for Distribution Automation,

        Characteristics of Distribution System,

        Distribution Automation,

        Objectives of Distribution Automation,

        Functions and benefits,

        Rural Distribution System,

        Objectives, Improvement of existing Distribution System, Causes, Remedies

        Refer: Electric Power Distribution Automation –by Khedkar   .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEXT BOOKS:

 

1) Electrical Power Generation Transmission and  Distribution by S.N.Singh ,PHI Publication    

  2) Electrical power Systems by V.K.Mehta, S.Chand

  3) Electric Power Distribution Automation by M.K khedkar University Science Press (Laxmi

      Publications)

  4) Electric Power by S.L Uppal   Khanna Publisher

  5) Electric Power Distribution Automation by Guptha,  Published by-Narosa Publishers

  6) Electric Power Distribution system by V. Kamaraju, TataMc grawhill

 

 

REFERENCES:

 

      1)       Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power by J.B Gupta Katsons Publications

      2)       Power System Operation and Control by Dr.B.R Gupta S.Chand

      3)       Computer –Aided Power Systems Analysis  by George L.Kusic PHI Publications.

      4)       Electric Power Systems by-Ashfaq Hussain  CBS Publishers

      5)       Electric Power Systems by –Subir Roy PHI

      6)       Electric Power Systems for Industrial Plants – by Kamalesh Das Publishers Jaico

      7)       Generation Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power by CL Wadhva Newage International 

      8)       Electrical Technology-Volume III B.L Theraja S.Chand Publishers

      9)       Magazines-ABB Review-u Pictures of the Future by Siemens

                 www.abb.com/review,www.siemens.com/pof

               www.newnespress.com

10)           IEEMA Journal, Electrical India Journal

11)           Elements of power distribution system-Kama raju-Tata mcgraw hill.

12)           Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power by Kataria and sons.

13)           Electrical Power Distribution automation by Gupta- Narosa publishers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

 

1.               Transmission                                                                                                               8 hrs

1.1           Explain transmission system with single line diagram

1.2      State the standard voltages used for Transmission systems.                                                 

1.3      Explain the Transmission by overhead lines                                                                          

1.4      Explain the Transmission by Underground Cables

1.5      Compare overhead and underground cable Transmission                                         

1.6      State the standard voltages used for Transmission systems.

1.7      Draw the circuit diagrams of  different Transmission  systems.                                           

            a) DC two wire                                                                                                                                  b) Single Phase AC two wire                                                                                                                          

  c) 3-Phase AC three wire                                                                                                                 

  d) 3-Phase AC four wire 

1.8      List the applications of transmission systems mentioned in 1.7

1.9      Compare AC and DC Transmission Systems.

1.10   Explain the following materials used in transmission lines and their importance:

          Steel towers, ACSR conductors, suspension insulators and strain insulators                       

2.       Line Constants and Performance of Transmission line                                           7 hrs

2.1     Define line resistance, Inductance and capacitance of Transmission lines.               

2.2    Classify the types of transmission line based on distance.                                                    

2.3     Draw the vector diagram for Short Transmission Lines.                                                       

2.4     Define efficiency and regulation of transmission line (No derivation, only formulae)

2.5     Solve simple problems on Regulation and Efficiency of Short Transmission lines

                                                                                                                                              (For given Receiving end Voltage only)                                                                                                                       

2.6     Explain Transposition of conductors in transmission lines.                                                   

2.7     Explain the meaning of Corona.                                                                                             

2.8     List the factors affecting Corona.                                                                                          

2.9     State the merits and demerits of Corona.

3          Underground Cables                                                                                                   3 hr        

3.1     List the properties of Insulating materials used for UGC.                

3.3     State the classification of underground cables.                                 

3.4     Explain with cross sectional diagram the construction of single core LT cable.             

3.5        Explain with crossectional diagram the construction of three core and three and

             half core cable screened cables

 3.5   Explain with crossectional diagram the construction of XLPE and Gas insulated cables.

   3.6   Explain the construction of oil filled cables.                                     

3.7  List the merits and demerits of oil filled cables.                        

 3.8    Explain the different methods of laying cables along with merits and demerits.

4      Erection and maintenance of Transmission line                                                        4 hrs

  4.1     List the materials used for line supports and Transmission lines.

4.2     Explain the procedure of erection of RCC poles, Steel Towers.       

4.3     Describe the normal maintenance aspects of Transmission lines       

          a) Overhead lines                                                                                                                   

          b) Underground cables                                                                                                          

5.   HVDC TRANSMISSION AND FACTS                                                                        5 hrs

5.1     Explain HVDC TRANSMISSION.                                                                                      

5.2     List the advantages and disadvantages of HVDC Transmission.                 

5.3     Mention different types of HVDC lines.                                                                              

5.4     State main components of HVDC Transmission.                              

5.5     Explain Flexible AC Transmission systems (FACTS).                                  

5.6     State objectives of FACTS.                                                                                                   

5.7     Name the different types of FACTS controllers.

             Refer: Electrical Power Generation Transmission and Distribution by S.N.Singh

  6.         Operation and maintenance of receiving stations                                                 5  hrs

6.1     Explain the term receiving station.                                                                                        

6.2     Draw the typical layout diagram of receiving station.                                   

6.3     Describe the necessity of protective devices like Isolators, Circuit Breakers, relays and

          lightning arresters.                                                                                                                  

6.4     Explain the maintenance of Receiving stations.                                

6.5     Point out the importance of interconnecting of station in large power systems.

6.6     Describe the function of Load Dispatch Stations.

7.       Operation and maintenance of sub-station                                                               4 hrs

7.1     Classify Substations according to service, design etc.                      

7.2     Explain the indoor and outdoor type substation.                              

7.3     List the merits and demerits of outdoor type substation.                  

7.4     Draw the layout diagram of MUSS Substation.                                

7.5     Identify the various units of substation.                                                                                

7.6     Draw the sketches showing the different methods of connecting of bus-bars arrangements.          

8            Distribution                                                                                                                5 hrs

8.1     Know the different types of distribution systems.                                      

8.2      Classify distribution systems according to current, type of construction, number of wires,

           scheme of connection etc.                  

8.3     Distinguish between feeder, distributor and service main in distribution systems.

8.4    Comparison of over head distribution system with Under Ground distribution system.

8.5                 Explain AC distribution system-primary and secondary.

8.6                 State the difference between AC 3 wire and 4 wire star connected system.

8.7                 Explain Radial distribution system.

8.8                 Explain Ring Main distribution system.

8.9                 Name the inter-connected system.

8.10   Name the type of DC distributors.

8.11               Explain the different types distributors.-fed at one end, fed at both ends.

8.12               Explain the voltage drop in feeders.

8.12               Decide the location of Distribution Transformers

9.          Protection against Over Voltage                                                                             6 hrs

9 .1        Define voltage Surge.

9.2         State the causes of Over Voltages.

9.2.1      Internal Causes.

9.2.2      External Causes.

9.3         Explain Lightning.

9.4         Explain Direct and Indirect Lightning Stroke.

9.5         Explain different methods of protection against lightning.                

9.5.1      Earthing screen.

9.5.2      Overhead ground wires.

9.5.3      Lightning Arrestors.

9.6         Explain different types of Lightning Arrestors.

9.6.1      Rod gap arrestor.

9.6.2      Horn gap arrestor.

9.6.3      Oxide Film Type and Thyrite Arrestor.

9.7         Explain Surge Absorber.

9.8         State the advantages of Earthed Neutral.

9.9          List the methods of Neutral Earthing.

9.10       Explain Resistance Earthing.

9.11       List the Merits and Demerits of Isolated Neutral.

9 .12       Explain the Principle and applications Peterson coil.

10         Computer Control of Power System-SCADA                                                          2 hrs

10.1         Expansion and understanding the term SCADA                          

 10.2        Explain the functions of SCAD

10.3        State the Need for SCADA

10.4        Name the Components of SCADA

 10.5        Draw the layout of SCADA and explain each Component

  11.        Distribution Automation                                                                                          5 hrs

  11.1      Explain short term and long term load forecasting

  11.2      State the problems with the existing distribution system.

  11.3      Explain the need for Distribution Automation

  11.4      Mention the characteristics of Distribution system

  11.5      Name the objectives of Distribution Automation

  11.6      Explain distribution automation functions

  11.7      Explain benefits of distribution automation

   11.8      Name the Components used in Distribution Automation System

   11.9      Draw the Layout Diagram of Typical Distribution Automation System.

  11.10      Rural distribution system

  11.11     Explain the causes and methods of improvement of existing distribution system.

               Refer:   Electric Power Distribution Automation by M.K khedkar                                                                                                    

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