ELECTRICAL MACHINES-2 4TH SEM DIPLOMA COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

DIPLOMA COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Fourth Semester

Sub:  ELECTRICAL MACHINES – II

Sub Code:
Contact Hrs/Week: 4.                                                                       Contact Hrs/Sem: 64

Chapter No                                                    Topic                                   No. of Hours


UNIT I
                                                                                                                                          
        1         Transformers                                                                                     22

UNIT II

        2           Induction motors                                                                             20
       
UNIT III
3         Synchronous motors                                                                          10
4         Single phase motors                                                                             2 
                      
           Industrial innovation                                                                         6
           Tests and Revision                                                                       4
                                                                                                                 _________
                                                 
                                                                                                        TOTAL           64






CONTENT

1.            TRANSFORMERS                                                                                   22Hrs

               1. Working Principle of Transformer                                                           4
               2. E.M.F.  Equation.                                                                                    3                      3. Operation on No Load & On Load                                                                            1                             
               4. Equivalent Circuit                                                                                    1         
               5. Regulation & Efficiency                                                                          6                             6. Three Phase Transformers                                                                        2                     
               7. Cooling of Transformer                                                                           2                                     8. Welding Transformer                                                                               1            
               9. Auto Transformer                                                                                    1
              10. Parallel Operation                                                                                  1
      
2             Induction motors                                                                                       20Hrs             
                                                                                                                                   
               1. Working principle                                                                                    3                     
               2. Types: Types of induction motor and their construction details.            1        
               3. Torque: Torque-slip curves.                                                                      4                     
               4. Equivalent circuit                                                                                     1                     
               5. Power output                                                                                           2
               6. Circle diagram: No load and blocked rotor tests-construction of circle
                   diagram-problems.                                                                                   3                                     7. Starting: Necessity & Types, soft starters.                                               2                     
               8. Speed Control: Different methods                                                          2
                   A] Change of applied voltage                                                                                                             B] Change of frequency                                                                                                                     C] Change of poles                                                                                                                             D] Rheostat control                                                                                
               9. Linear induction motor                                                                            1
               10. Induction generator                                                                               1           

3             Synchronous motors                                                                                  10Hrs                                                                                                                                                             
               1. Working principle.                                                                                   2
               2, Operation on load                                                                                    1         
               3. Characteristics                                                                                          2
               4. Hunting                                                                                                    1                                     5.Starting Method:                                                                                       1             
               6. Applications                                                                                             1         
               7. Permanent magnet synchronous motor                                                    2
               NEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, COBALT, FERRITE, ALNICO.5        

4.            Single phase Motors                                                                                   2Hrs
               Split phase motors and Capacitor motors
SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
                                                                                                                                               
1       Transformers
                                                                                                                      
      1.1       Working principle, construction and classification               
         1.1.1 Explain the working principle of transformers.              
         1.1.2 Classify the various types of transformers                                 
         1.1.2.1   Based on construction                                               
         1.1.2.2   Based on application                                                  
         1.1.3 Explain briefly the various parts of the transformer and explain the functions
                  of each part.                                                        
         1.1.4 Name the different insulating material used in transformer.      
         1.1.4.1   Write the properties and uses of transformer oil.                   
         1.1.5 Explain the construction of core type and shell type transformers.       
      1.2       Emf Equation                                                   
         1.2.1 Derive emf equation and explain transformation ratio.              
         1.2.2 Solve problem on emf equation. 
                      
      1.3       Operation                                                          
         1.3.1 Explain the operation of a transformer on no load and on load with vector
                  diagrams.                                                                                                
         1.3.2 Solve the problem on transformer on no load.   

      1.4       Equivalent circuit                                                         
         1.4.1 Define the equivalent resistance of a transformer as refereed to primary and
                  secondary side.                                                   
         1.4.2 Explain magnetic leakage in a transformer core.            
         1.4.3 Explain leakage reactance & calculate equivalent reactance as referred to
                  primary and secondary side.                                           
1.4.4  Write the formula for equivalent impedance.
1) Referred to primary.   2) Referred to secondary                             
         1.4.5 Draw the equivalent circuit diagram of a transformer.  

      1.5       Regulation and Efficiency                                           
         1.5.1 Explain the various losses in a transformer.                               
         1.5.2 Explain open circuit and short circuit test on transformer to find no load and
                  copper losses                                                       
         1.5.3 Define voltage regulation in the transformer.                            
         1.5.4 Write equation for voltage regulation.                           
         1.5.5 Calculate the efficiency of transformer at given loads.             
         1.5.6 State the condition for maximum efficiency                              
         1.5.7 Define all day efficiency.                                               
         1.5.8 Solve the problems on the above.
                      
      1.6       3 phase transformers                                        
         1.6.1 Explain working principle and construction of 3 phase transformers.
         1.6.2 Explain star-star, Delta-Delta, star-Delta, Delta-star, open delta and Scott
                  connections
                 
1.7 Cooling of transformer                                    
         1.7.1 Explain the necessity of cooling of transformer.            
         1.7.2 List the various types of cooling of transformer.                       
         1.7.3 Write the meaning of AN, ON, OFA.
        
1.8 Welding transformer                                        
      1.8.1    Explain the construction and write the applications of a welding transformer.                   
1.9 Auto transformer                     
         1.9.1 Explain briefly an auto transformer.                               
         1.9.2 Compare auto transformer with two winding transformer.       
         1.9.3 List the application of auto transformer.
                 
1.10    Parallel operation                                                     
         1.10.1    Explain the necessity and conditions for parallel operation. 
         1.10.2    Explain with neat sketches parallel operation of single phase
                       transformers with their load sharing. 
                                  
2    Induction motor
                                                              
      2.1       Working principle                                                 
      2.1.1    Explain the working principle of induction motor.             
      2.1.2    Compare with it a transformer.                                           
      2.1.3    Explain how the rotating magnetic field is produced by poly phase supply.
      2.1.4    Define the terms slip, frequency of rotor current.
                 
      2.2       Types                                                                                  
      2.2.1    Describe the construction of stator, squirrel cage rotor and phase wound rotor.                                 
      2.3       Torque                                                                                            
      2.3.2    Derive an expression for starting torque.                            
      2.3.3    Compare the starting torques of squirrel cage and slip ring induction motor.
      2.3.4    State the condition for max starting torque.                                   
      2.3.5    Explain the effect of change in supply voltage on starting torque.
      2.3.6    State equation for torque under running conditions.                      
      2.3.7    Draw torque - slip curves.                                       
      2.3.8    State relationship between                                      
                  1. Full load torque and maximum torque.                           
                  2. Starting torque and maximum torque.                            
      2.4       Equivalent circuit                                                  
      2.4.1    Draw the equivalent circuit of an induction motor.
     
      2.5       Power output                                                         
      2.5.1    State the relationship between rotor power input, rotor copper loss, and mechanical
                  power developed and slip.
      2.5.2    Solve problems on the above.                                             
      2.6       Circle diagrams                                                     
      2.6.1    Construct the circle diagram for the given 3 induction motor using the no-load and  
                   blocked rotor test results.
2.6.2        Calculate slip rotor stator copper losses, power factor, efficiency,  speed regulation for
Full load conditions from above circle diagram.                            
      2.6.3    Solve problems on the above.
     
      2.7       Starting                                                                               
      2.7.1    Explain the necessity of starters for 3 induction motors and list the various types of
                  starters.                                
      2.7.2    Explain the construction and working of                           
                  1. D.O.L. Starter                  2. Soft Starter             3. Star-Delta Starter
                                                      
      2.8       Speed control                                                         
      2.8.1    With neat circuit diagram. Explain the speed control of 3 induction motor.
                  1. Change of applied voltage                                                          
                  2. Change of frequency(Variable voltage and variable frequency)                        
                  3. Change of poles                                                  
                  4. Rheostat control.
       2.8.2.  Explain the principle of working & application of linear induction motor.
       2.8.3     Explain Induction Generators and its applications.

      3.Synchronous motors
      3.1       Working principle                                                 
      3.1.1    Describe the general principle of operation of synchronous motor.           
      3.1.2    Compare the synchronous motor with induction motor
                 
      3.2       Operation on load                                                  
      3.2.1    Explain the effect of change in excitation at constant load
     
      3.3       Characteristics                                                       
      3.3.1    Explain the effect of excitation on armature current & power factor.       
      3.3.2    Define V-curves & inverted V-curves & draw the same.
                 
      3.4       Hunting                                                                              
      3.4.1    Explain hunting and its prevention.
                 
      3.5       Starting                                                                               
      3.5.1    Explain the methods of starting synchronous motor.                     
      3.6       Applications                                                           
      3.6.1    Explain the applications of synchronous motors.
                 
      3.7       Permanent Magnet Synchronous motor                         
      3.7.1    Explain permanent magnet Synchronous motor.                
      3.7.2    State the characteristics of permanent magnet.                  
      3.7.3    List the properties of NEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, COBALT, FERRITE,
                  ALNICO.5.
                                                                          
4    Single phase motors
     
      4.1       Split phase induction motor                                             
      4.1.1    State the principle of working of single phase induction motor.    
      4.1.2    Name different types of single phase induction motor.                 
      4.1.3    Explain the construction, principle of operation, characteristics &applications of
                  a) Single phase capacitor start capacitor run I.M  b) Single phase capacitor start
                       induction run I.M 


REFERENCES:
                   
1. Electrical Technology volume 2 – by BL Theraja & A.K.Theraja S.Chand publication
2. Principles of Electrical Machines by V.K.Mehtha.S.Chand publication
3. Electrical Machines by Bhattacharya. Tata McGraw Hill Co.
4. Electrical Machines – by J.B.Guptha  Kataria & Sons Publications.
5. Generation of Electrical Energy by BR Gupta.  S.Chand Publication.
6. Fundamentals of elecrical drives – by G.K. Dubey   Narosa publications.
7. Electrical Machines – by Deshpande.

TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION Fourth Semester DIPLOMA ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

Department of Technical Education

DIPLOMA COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

Fourth Semester

 

 Sub: TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

Sub Code:

Contact Hrs/Week: 04                                                                                 Contact Hrs/Sem: 64

 

Chapter No:                                                Topic                                                   No. of hours

                          

                                                                   UNIT -1

 

1                 Transmission                                                                                                              8

2          Line Constants and Performance                                                                              7

3          Under ground cables                                                                                                 3

 

 

                                                                    UNIT-2

 

4         Erection Materials and Maintenance of Transmission lines                                         4

5         HVDC and FACTS                                                                                                     5

6         Receiving Station                                                                                                         5

7         Sub Station                                                                                                                  4

 

 

                                                                   UNIT-3

8         Distribution                                                                                                                  5                                                

9         Protection against over voltages                                                                                  6

10       Computer Control of Power System-SCADA                                                            2

11       Distribution Automation                                                                                              5

12       Seminars (by Experts)/ Visits

          to Receiving Station HVDCStation/nearbyHydro/thermal/nuclear/diesel/wind        6

 

                                           Tests                                                                                           4

                                                                                                                                          _____                                                                                                                      

                                           Total                                                                                         64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENT

 

1. Transmission.

           Line Fundamentals.

Standard  voltage of transmission.

Systems of Transmission.Comparison of AC and DC Transmission

2.  Line Constants and Performance.

           Line parameters.

           Effect of line inductance, capacitance  on regulation.

           Calculation of regulation for short transmission line, problems.

           Corona,  Transposition of conductors.

3.  Under ground cables.

          Types and different kV ratings.

          Methods of laying cables.

  4.  Erection and maintenance. of Transmission & Distribution lines

          Erection, Maintenance of Transmission lines,

Study of Conductors and Insulating Materials used for line supports,U.G Cables, Transmission and Distribution lines

5.  HVDC transmission and FACTS:

         Introduction,

         Advantages and disadvantages of HVDC Transmission,

         Types of HVDC  links, Main Components of HVDC transmission,

         Flexible AC transmission System  Technology(FACTS),

         Objectives Basic types of FACTS Controller,

         FACTS devices     Static Var. Compensators

 

         Refer: Electrical Power Generation Transmission and Distribution by S.N.Singh

6.  Receiving stations.

          Types and layout diagrams.

          Auxiliaries in receiving stations.

          Normal routine in Receiving stations.

          Grid connection - load dispatching.

7.   Sub stations

           Types and layout diagrams.

           Auxiliaries in substations.

           Normal routine in a substation.

           Busbar arrangements.

 

 

 

8.  Distribution.

          Classification of distribution system.

          AC and DC distribution.

          Connection schemes of distribution system.

          DC distribution system.

          Types of DC distribution system.

 

9.  Protection against over voltages

        Voltage surge – Causes of over voltages

        Lightning

        Types of lightning strokes

        Protection against lightning

        Lightning Arresters

        Types of Lightning Arresters

        Surge Absorbers

        Isolated and Earth Neutral

        Peterson Coil-principle and application

10   Computer Control of Power System –SCADA Supervisory Control

        Functions of SCADA,

        Need for SCADA

 .       Components of SCADA.

         Configurations, Layout of SCADA.

         Refer: Power System Operation and Control by – B.R Gupta

 

11      Distribution Automation

 

        Load Forecasting,

        Problems with existing Distribution System,

        Need for Distribution Automation,

        Characteristics of Distribution System,

        Distribution Automation,

        Objectives of Distribution Automation,

        Functions and benefits,

        Rural Distribution System,

        Objectives, Improvement of existing Distribution System, Causes, Remedies

        Refer: Electric Power Distribution Automation –by Khedkar   .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEXT BOOKS:

 

1) Electrical Power Generation Transmission and  Distribution by S.N.Singh ,PHI Publication    

  2) Electrical power Systems by V.K.Mehta, S.Chand

  3) Electric Power Distribution Automation by M.K khedkar University Science Press (Laxmi

      Publications)

  4) Electric Power by S.L Uppal   Khanna Publisher

  5) Electric Power Distribution Automation by Guptha,  Published by-Narosa Publishers

  6) Electric Power Distribution system by V. Kamaraju, TataMc grawhill

 

 

REFERENCES:

 

      1)       Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power by J.B Gupta Katsons Publications

      2)       Power System Operation and Control by Dr.B.R Gupta S.Chand

      3)       Computer –Aided Power Systems Analysis  by George L.Kusic PHI Publications.

      4)       Electric Power Systems by-Ashfaq Hussain  CBS Publishers

      5)       Electric Power Systems by –Subir Roy PHI

      6)       Electric Power Systems for Industrial Plants – by Kamalesh Das Publishers Jaico

      7)       Generation Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power by CL Wadhva Newage International 

      8)       Electrical Technology-Volume III B.L Theraja S.Chand Publishers

      9)       Magazines-ABB Review-u Pictures of the Future by Siemens

                 www.abb.com/review,www.siemens.com/pof

               www.newnespress.com

10)           IEEMA Journal, Electrical India Journal

11)           Elements of power distribution system-Kama raju-Tata mcgraw hill.

12)           Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power by Kataria and sons.

13)           Electrical Power Distribution automation by Gupta- Narosa publishers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

 

1.               Transmission                                                                                                               8 hrs

1.1           Explain transmission system with single line diagram

1.2      State the standard voltages used for Transmission systems.                                                 

1.3      Explain the Transmission by overhead lines                                                                          

1.4      Explain the Transmission by Underground Cables

1.5      Compare overhead and underground cable Transmission                                         

1.6      State the standard voltages used for Transmission systems.

1.7      Draw the circuit diagrams of  different Transmission  systems.                                           

            a) DC two wire                                                                                                                                  b) Single Phase AC two wire                                                                                                                          

  c) 3-Phase AC three wire                                                                                                                 

  d) 3-Phase AC four wire 

1.8      List the applications of transmission systems mentioned in 1.7

1.9      Compare AC and DC Transmission Systems.

1.10   Explain the following materials used in transmission lines and their importance:

          Steel towers, ACSR conductors, suspension insulators and strain insulators                       

2.       Line Constants and Performance of Transmission line                                           7 hrs

2.1     Define line resistance, Inductance and capacitance of Transmission lines.               

2.2    Classify the types of transmission line based on distance.                                                    

2.3     Draw the vector diagram for Short Transmission Lines.                                                       

2.4     Define efficiency and regulation of transmission line (No derivation, only formulae)

2.5     Solve simple problems on Regulation and Efficiency of Short Transmission lines

                                                                                                                                              (For given Receiving end Voltage only)                                                                                                                       

2.6     Explain Transposition of conductors in transmission lines.                                                   

2.7     Explain the meaning of Corona.                                                                                             

2.8     List the factors affecting Corona.                                                                                          

2.9     State the merits and demerits of Corona.

3          Underground Cables                                                                                                   3 hr        

3.1     List the properties of Insulating materials used for UGC.                

3.3     State the classification of underground cables.                                 

3.4     Explain with cross sectional diagram the construction of single core LT cable.             

3.5        Explain with crossectional diagram the construction of three core and three and

             half core cable screened cables

 3.5   Explain with crossectional diagram the construction of XLPE and Gas insulated cables.

   3.6   Explain the construction of oil filled cables.                                     

3.7  List the merits and demerits of oil filled cables.                        

 3.8    Explain the different methods of laying cables along with merits and demerits.

4      Erection and maintenance of Transmission line                                                        4 hrs

  4.1     List the materials used for line supports and Transmission lines.

4.2     Explain the procedure of erection of RCC poles, Steel Towers.       

4.3     Describe the normal maintenance aspects of Transmission lines       

          a) Overhead lines                                                                                                                   

          b) Underground cables                                                                                                          

5.   HVDC TRANSMISSION AND FACTS                                                                        5 hrs

5.1     Explain HVDC TRANSMISSION.                                                                                      

5.2     List the advantages and disadvantages of HVDC Transmission.                 

5.3     Mention different types of HVDC lines.                                                                              

5.4     State main components of HVDC Transmission.                              

5.5     Explain Flexible AC Transmission systems (FACTS).                                  

5.6     State objectives of FACTS.                                                                                                   

5.7     Name the different types of FACTS controllers.

             Refer: Electrical Power Generation Transmission and Distribution by S.N.Singh

  6.         Operation and maintenance of receiving stations                                                 5  hrs

6.1     Explain the term receiving station.                                                                                        

6.2     Draw the typical layout diagram of receiving station.                                   

6.3     Describe the necessity of protective devices like Isolators, Circuit Breakers, relays and

          lightning arresters.                                                                                                                  

6.4     Explain the maintenance of Receiving stations.                                

6.5     Point out the importance of interconnecting of station in large power systems.

6.6     Describe the function of Load Dispatch Stations.

7.       Operation and maintenance of sub-station                                                               4 hrs

7.1     Classify Substations according to service, design etc.                      

7.2     Explain the indoor and outdoor type substation.                              

7.3     List the merits and demerits of outdoor type substation.                  

7.4     Draw the layout diagram of MUSS Substation.                                

7.5     Identify the various units of substation.                                                                                

7.6     Draw the sketches showing the different methods of connecting of bus-bars arrangements.          

8            Distribution                                                                                                                5 hrs

8.1     Know the different types of distribution systems.                                      

8.2      Classify distribution systems according to current, type of construction, number of wires,

           scheme of connection etc.                  

8.3     Distinguish between feeder, distributor and service main in distribution systems.

8.4    Comparison of over head distribution system with Under Ground distribution system.

8.5                 Explain AC distribution system-primary and secondary.

8.6                 State the difference between AC 3 wire and 4 wire star connected system.

8.7                 Explain Radial distribution system.

8.8                 Explain Ring Main distribution system.

8.9                 Name the inter-connected system.

8.10   Name the type of DC distributors.

8.11               Explain the different types distributors.-fed at one end, fed at both ends.

8.12               Explain the voltage drop in feeders.

8.12               Decide the location of Distribution Transformers

9.          Protection against Over Voltage                                                                             6 hrs

9 .1        Define voltage Surge.

9.2         State the causes of Over Voltages.

9.2.1      Internal Causes.

9.2.2      External Causes.

9.3         Explain Lightning.

9.4         Explain Direct and Indirect Lightning Stroke.

9.5         Explain different methods of protection against lightning.                

9.5.1      Earthing screen.

9.5.2      Overhead ground wires.

9.5.3      Lightning Arrestors.

9.6         Explain different types of Lightning Arrestors.

9.6.1      Rod gap arrestor.

9.6.2      Horn gap arrestor.

9.6.3      Oxide Film Type and Thyrite Arrestor.

9.7         Explain Surge Absorber.

9.8         State the advantages of Earthed Neutral.

9.9          List the methods of Neutral Earthing.

9.10       Explain Resistance Earthing.

9.11       List the Merits and Demerits of Isolated Neutral.

9 .12       Explain the Principle and applications Peterson coil.

10         Computer Control of Power System-SCADA                                                          2 hrs

10.1         Expansion and understanding the term SCADA                          

 10.2        Explain the functions of SCAD

10.3        State the Need for SCADA

10.4        Name the Components of SCADA

 10.5        Draw the layout of SCADA and explain each Component

  11.        Distribution Automation                                                                                          5 hrs

  11.1      Explain short term and long term load forecasting

  11.2      State the problems with the existing distribution system.

  11.3      Explain the need for Distribution Automation

  11.4      Mention the characteristics of Distribution system

  11.5      Name the objectives of Distribution Automation

  11.6      Explain distribution automation functions

  11.7      Explain benefits of distribution automation

   11.8      Name the Components used in Distribution Automation System

   11.9      Draw the Layout Diagram of Typical Distribution Automation System.

  11.10      Rural distribution system

  11.11     Explain the causes and methods of improvement of existing distribution system.

               Refer:   Electric Power Distribution Automation by M.K khedkar                                                                                                    

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